Secretory phospholipases A2 activate selective functions in human eosinophils

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J Immunol. 2003 Mar 15;170(6):3279-88. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.170.6.3279.


Secretory phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) are released in large amounts in the blood of patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and accumulate at sites of chronic inflammation, such as the airways of patients with bronchial asthma. Blood eosinophils or eosinophils recruited in inflammatory areas therefore can be exposed in vivo to high concentrations of sPLA(2). We have examined the effects of two structurally different sPLA(2)s (group IA and group IIA) on several functions of eosinophils isolated from normal donors and patients with hypereosinophilia. Both group IA and IIA sPLA(2) induced a concentration-dependent release of beta-glucuronidase, IL-6, and IL-8. Release of the two cytokines was associated with the accumulation of their specific mRNA. In addition, sPLA(2)s induced the surface expression of CD44 and CD69, two major activation markers of eosinophils. In contrast, none of the sPLA(2)s examined induced the production of IL-5, the de novo synthesis of leukotriene C(4) and platelet-activating factor, or the generation of superoxide anion from human eosinophils. Incubation of eosinophils with the major enzymatic products of the sPLA(2)s (arachidonic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine, or lysophosphatidic acid) did not reproduce any of the enzymes’ effects. In addition, inactivation of sPLA(2) enzymatic activity by bromophenacyl bromide did not influence the release of beta-glucuronidase or of cytokines. Stimulation of eosinophils by sPLA(2)s was associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. These results indicate that sPLA(2)s selectively activate certain proinflammatory and immunoregulatory functions of human eosinophils through mechanism(s) independent from enzymatic activity and from the generation of arachidonic acid.

PMID:12626587 | DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.170.6.3279